Weaves Overview

Weave Name

Weave names can be technical. Some of them contain the weave family name, and certain weaves have an 'x in y' (with x greater than y) designation (e.g. European 4 in 1) indicating how many rings go through each ring (with slightly different rules for the Japanese weave family). Some weave names extend those of a previous version of the weave with the addition of one or more qualifiers. (E.g. Captive Inverted Round vs. Inverted Round, Three Quarters Persian Sheet vs. Three Quarters Persian, and Half Persian 5 in 1 Symmetrical vs. Half Persian 5 in 1, to name a few.) Technical names are used whenever possible, and some weaves are named differently elsewhere.

Weave Family

Weaves are divided into five families: European, Persian, Japanese, Spiral, and Captive/Orbital. Captive European, Orbital European, Captive Persian, and Captive Japanese were put into their own sections as of the latest update to help keep things better organized. Each family possesses its own unique ring interactions and weaves can be from more than one family, which are considered "Hybrid". The weave listings are mostly sorted by family, with a few exceptions occurring at the end of the list under "Other". Subsections have been created for oganizational purposes, and each section links to other weaves (look for the + links in the headings) that qualify, but are stored elsewhere.

Weave Form

Weaves are divided into three forms: chain, sheet, and dimensional. Each weave is of only one form, with the exception of Mobius Ball, which cannot be infinitely expanded. Chain weaves expand on one plane. Sheet weaves expand on two planes and cover an area. Dimensional weaves expand on three planes and occupy a volume. Arguably, the only true dimensional weave is Japanese 4 in 1 Cube. At the end of the list a few more Cubes are found, as well as Webs.


Units are not weaves, perhaps with the exception of the Mobius Ball. As such, they have been placed in their own separate section. Units are specific designs of usually a fixed number of rings which once complete, are no longer expanded. As such, they are commonly used as pendants for example, but many times can be bolted together in assorted fashions to create more elaborate designs that expand them into chains or sheets. Each unit possesses characteristics of one or more weave families. Many units utilize rings of different wire diameters, and as a result, there is less available AR data.

AR Recommendations

Minimum ARs listed always allow for infinite expansion. Sometimes a weave can be started at a lower AR, but it will eventually lock up to the point where no more rings can be added. Minimum ARs are not always going to be completely accurate, due to ring size variables. Rings are not perfectly round and sometimes get further warped from weaving, the closure occasionally gaps slightly from tension. Structural AR refers to a range of ARs between which a weave will be stiff and possess structural tendencies, as compared with general AR which focuses on ideal flexibilities for more common mailling purposes like jewelry and clothing, for example. These are by no means restrictions of any sort, just general guidelines, and sometimes overlapping occurs.

In cases where more than one ring size is used for a weave, the values are divided by a comma. It's important to note that in all cases on the weave chart under minimum, structural, and general AR, the same wire diameter is used for each ring size. It is encouraged to experiment with rings of different wire sizes, and sometimes this provides preferred results.

AR Legend

>7.2> means greater than. greater than 7.2
<8.0< means less than. less than 8.0
-5.4+- before a value means it can go lower. + after a value means it can go higher.
(2.1, 3.0)+2 ring sizes used, both can go higher
-2.3, 3.0+2 ring sizes used, first can go lower, second can go higher
3.8, 6.0 - 5.2, 7.2AR range for 2 ring size using weave, commas separate values, can be used wih brackets and/or +/-
~(4.3, 5.8)~ means approximately
6.8 or 6.9or in min AR column means it doesn't work 0.1 below the 1st number; works 0.1 above 2nd number, but still flexes
(4.7, 5.1), and 5.1and in min AR column means there are more than 1 ring type in the weave (e.g. cage+captive): single value is single AR min

Weave Name Shortforms

Weave shortforms are widely used in the maille community. They are utilized in the Gallery and Weaves charts. Some are standard, many aren't.


  • 2-1 - 2 in 1. also: 3-1, 4-1, 4-2, 5-1, 6-1, 6-2, 7-1, 8-1, 8-2, 9-1, 10-1, 12-1, 12-2, 12-3, 14-1, 16-2, 16-3
  • (C1), (C2), (C3), etc. - suffix refers to number of captive rings per cell
  • (R1), (R2), (R3), etc. - suffix refers to number of reinforced rings per cell
  • (O1), (O2), (O3), etc. - suffix refers to number of orbital rings per cell

Captive European


Orbital European

Reinforced European


Captive Persian

Reinforced Persian


Captive Japanese